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The world until yesterday
what can we learn from traditional societies?
VerfasserIn: Diamond, Jared M.
Verfasserangabe: Jared Diamond
Jahr: 2012
Verlag: London, Allen Lane
Mediengruppe: Buch
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 Vorbestellen Zweigstelle: 07., Urban-Loritz-Pl. 2a Standorte: GS.E FS.E Diam / College 2e - Ethnologie / Sammlung Duffek Status: Verfügbar Frist: Vorbestellungen: 0
Inhalt
VERLAGSTEXT: / / The "World Until Yesterday" is a visionary new account of humanity's past from Jared Diamond, author of the international bestsellers "Collapse" and "Guns, Germs and Steel", which has sold over 1 million copies and won the Pulitzer Prize. In "The World Until Yesterday", Diamond reveals how tribal societies offer an extraordinary window into how our ancestors lived for millions of years - until virtually yesterday, in evolutionary terms - and provide unique, often overlooked insights into human nature. In his most personal book to date, Jared Diamond writes about his experiences over nearly five decades working and living in New Guinea, an island that is home to one thousand of the world's 7,000 languages and one of the most culturally diverse places on earth. Drawing on his own fieldwork, as well as evidence from Inuit, Amazonian Indians and other cultures, Diamond explores how tribal peoples approach essential human problems, from childrearing to old age to conflict resolution to health. He unearths remarkable findings - from the reasons why modern afflictions like diabetes, obesity and hypertension are largely non-existent in tribal societies, to the surprising cognitive benefits of multilingualism. As Diamond reminds us, the West achieved global dominance due to specific environmental and technological advantages, but Westerners do not necessarily have superior ideas about how to live well. / / AUS DEM INHALT: / / List of Tables and Figures | / PROLOGUE: At the Airport | / An airport scene I Why study traditional societies? I States I Types of traditional societies I Approaches, causes, and sources I A small book about a big subject I Plan of the book / / PART ONE: SETTING THE STAGE BY DIVIDING SPACE / / CHAPTER 1. Friends, Enemies, Strangers, and Traders | 37 / A boundary I Mutually exclusive territories I Non-exclusive land use I Friends, enemies, and strangers I First contacts I Trade and traders I Market economies I Traditional forms of trade I Traditional trade items I Who trades what? I Tiny nations / / PART TWO: PEACE AND WAR / / CHAPTER 2. Compensation for the Death of a Child | 79 / An accident I A ceremony I What if . ? I What the state did I New Guinea compensation I Life-long relationships I Other non¿state societies I State authority I State civil justice I Defects in state civil justice I State criminal justice I Restorative justice I Advantages and their price / / CHAPTER 3. A Short Chapter, About a Tiny War | 119 / The Dani War I The war¿s time-line I The war¿s death toll / / CHAPTER 4. A Longer Chapter, About Many Wars | 129 / De¿nitions of war I Sources of information I Forms of traditional warfare I Mortality rates I Similarities and differences I Ending warfare I Effects of European contact I Warlike animals, peaceful peoples I Motives fortraditional war I Ultimate reasons I Whom do people ¿ght? I Forgetting Pearl Harbor / / PART THREE: YOUNG AND OLD / / CHAPTER 5. Bringing Up Children | 173 / Comparisons of child-rearing I Childbirth I Infanticide I Weaning and birth interval I On-demand nursing I Infant¿adult contact I Fathers and allo-parents I Responses to crying infants I Physical punishment I Child autonomy I Multi¿age playgroups I Child play and education I Their kids and our kids / / CHAPTER 6. The Treatment of Old People: Cherish, Abandon, or Kill? | 210 / The elderly I Expectations about eldercare I Why abandon or kill? I Usefulness of old people I Society¿s values I Society¿s rules I Better or worse today? I What to do with older people? / / PART POUR: DANGER AND RESPONSE / / CHAPTER 7. Constructive Paranoia | 243 / Attitudes towards danger I A night visit I A boat accident I Just a stick in the ground I Taking risks I Risks and talkativeness / / CHAPTER 8. Lions and Other Dangers | 276 / Dangers of traditional life I Accidents I Vigilance I Human violence I Diseases I Responses to diseases I Starvation I Unpredictable food shortages I Scatter your land I Seasonality and food storage I Diet broadening I Aggregation and dispersal I Responses to danger / / PART FIVE: RELIGION, LANGUAGE, AND HEALTH / / CHAPTER 9. What Electric Eels Tell Us About the Evolution of Religion | 323 / Questions about religion I Definitions of religion I Functions and electric eels I The search for causal explanations I Supernatural beliefs I Religion¿s function of explanation I Defusing anxiety I Providing comfort I Organization and obedience I Codes of behaviour towards strangers I Justifying war I Badges of commitment I Measures of religious success I Changes in religion¿s functions / / CHAPTER 10. Speaking in Many Tongues | 369 / Multilingualism I The world¿s language total I How languages evolve I Geography of language diversity I Traditional multilingualism I Bene¿ts of bilingualism I Alzheimer¿s disease I Vanishing languages I How languages disappear I Are minority languages harmful? I Why preserve languages? I How can we protect languages? / / CHAPTER 11. Salt, Sugar, Fat, and Sloth | 410 / Non-communicable diseases I Our salt intake I Salt and blood pressure I Causes of hypertension I Dietary sources of salt I Diabetes I Types of diabetes I Genes, environment, and diabetes I Pima Indians and Nauru Islanders I Diabetes in India I Bene¿ts of genes for diabetes I Why is diabetes low in Europeans? I The future of non-communicable diseases / / EPILOGUE: At Another Airport | 452 / From the jungle to the 405 I Advantages of the modern world I Advantages of the traditional world I What can we learn? / / Acknowledgments | 467 / Further Readings | 471 / Index | 483 / Illustration Credits | 499 / /
Details
VerfasserIn: Diamond, Jared M.
VerfasserInnenangabe: Jared Diamond
Jahr: 2012
Verlag: London, Allen Lane
Systematik: GS.E, FS.E
ISBN: 978-1-8461-4758-6
2. ISBN: 1-8461-4758-1
Beschreibung: XI, 498 Seiten : Illustrationen, Karten
Schlagwörter: Interkulturelles Lernen, Jäger, Sammler, Erziehung, Krankheit, Sozialstruktur, Sprache, Traditionale Kultur, Dani, Kultur, Papua-Neuguinea, Feldforschung, Kulturkritik, Sozialer Wandel, Jagd, Gesundheit, Kranker, Pathogenese, Pädagogik, Unterricht, Kulturphilosophie, Zivilisation, Gesellschaftskritik, Kulturkritiker, Kulturpessimismus, Soziale Evolution, Soziokultureller Wandel, Zeitkritik, Deutsch-Neuguinea, Papua <Territorium>, Interkulturalität / Lernen, Multikulturelles Lernen, Transkulturelles Lernen, Bevölkerung / Sozialstruktur, Education (eng), Erkrankung, Erziehungspraxis, Gesellschaft / Struktur, Gesellschaftsstruktur, Krankheiten, Krankheitszustand, Soziale Organisation <Soziologie>, Soziale Struktur, Sprachen, Hubula, Neuguinea <Ost>, Ost-Neuguinea, Papua New Guinea, Staat Papua, Feldarbeit <Empirische Sozialforschung>, Feldstudie, Field-research, Field-work, Gesellschaft / Strukturelle Anpassung, Gesellschaft / Strukturwandel, Gesellschaft / Wandel, Gesellschaftlicher Wandel, Gesellschaftswandel, Soziale Veränderung, Soziale Änderung, Zivilisationskritik, Alterskrankheit, Berufskrankheit, Geheimsprache, Psychische Störung, Schlagfertigkeit, Struktur, Umweltkrankheit, Zivilisationskrankheit, Alltagskultur, Jugendkultur, Kulturelle Identität, Volkskultur, Fortschritt, Modernisierung
Sprache: Englisch
Fußnote: Literaturangaben
Mediengruppe: Buch