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Molecular & cell biology for dummies

[see DNA technology at work in the real world : Understand cell structure, metabolism, and reproduction : Make sense of genetics and inheritance]
Verfasser*in: Suche nach Verfasser*in Kratz, René Fester
Verfasser*innenangabe: by René Fester Kratz, PhD
Jahr: 2020
Verlag: Hoboken, NJ, Wiley, J /VCH
Mediengruppe: Buch
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Vorbestellen Zweigstelle: 07., Urban-Loritz-Pl. 2a Standorte: NN.BD FS.E Krat / College 6a - Englisch Status: Entliehen Frist: 22.03.2024 Vorbestellungen: 0

Inhalt

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Your insider guide to the stuff of life
 
3.8 billion years old and counting, there's more than a little to know about the fundamentals of how life works. This friendly guide takes you from the primordial soup to the present, explaining how specialized cells have given rise to everything living, from the humblest amoeba to walking, talking human beings. Whether you're enrolled in a cell or molecular biology course and need a straightforward overview, or are just curious about the latest advances, this fully updated edition is your all-access ticket to our inner world.
 
Molecular & Cell Biology For Dummies decodes jargon and theories that can tax even the most devoted student. It covers everything from basic principles to how new technology, genetic testing, and microarray techniques are opening up new possibilities for research and careers. It also includes invaluable tips on how to prepare for--and ace--your exams!
* Explore the structure and function of the cells--and find out why cellular context is crucial to the study of disease
* Discover how molecular biology can solve world problems
* Understand how DNA determines traits and is regulated by cells
* Enhance your knowledge and results with online resources and study tips
 
From microscopic details to macro concepts, this book has something for you.
 
 
Table of Contents:
Introduction 1 About This Book 1 Foolish Assumptions 2 Icons Used in This Book 3 Beyond the Book 3 Where to Go from Here 3 Part 1: The World of the Cell 5 Chapter 1: Exploring the World of the Cell 7 Cells and Viruses: Discovering the Inhabitants of the Microscopic World 7 You: On the cellular level 8 Them: Bacteria and viruses 9 The Life of a Cell: How Cells Get What They Need to Survive and Reproduce 10 Sexual Reproduction: Shuffling the Genetic Deck for the Next Generation 10 DNA to Protein: Following the Instructions in the Genetic Code 11 DNA Technology: Tackling the World’s Problems 11 Chapter 2: Take a Tour inside the Cell 13 Admiring the Unity and Diversity of Cells 13 Finding Common Ground: Structures in All Cells 14 Customs: Plasma membrane 15 A happenin’ place: The cytoplasm 16 The library: DNA-containing region 17 Workbenches: Ribosomes 17 Your Body, Your Cells: Eukaryotic Cells 18 Home office: The nucleus 20 Post office: The endomembrane system 22 The fireplace: Mitochondria 24 In the kitchen: Chloroplasts 26 Scaffolding and railroad tracks: The cytoskeleton 27 Rebar and concrete: Cell walls and extracellular matrices 30 Tiny but Mighty: Prokaryotic Cells 32 Castle walls: The cell wall 33 Ooze, slime, and grappling hooks: Capsules, pili, and fimbriae 33 Outboard motors: Bacterial flagella 33 Chapter 3: Dead or Alive: Viruses 35 Viruses: Hijackers of the Cellular World 35 Just the basics: The structure of viruses 36 Knock, knock, virus calling: How viruses get into cells 37 War on a Microcosmic Scale: Viruses of Bacteria 39 Seek and destroy: The lytic cycle 40 I think I’ll take a little nap: The lysogenic cycle 41 I’ve Got a Cold: Viruses of Eukaryotes 41 Same story, different players 42 Come in and take your coat off 44 There’s more than one way to copy a virus 45 Leaving it all behind 47 Putting it all together 47 HIV and AIDS: Viruses in the real world 48 Part 2: Molecules: The Stuff of Life 51 Chapter 4: Better Living through Chemistry 53 Life Really Matters 53 It’s Elemental: Atoms That Make Up Living Things 54 Exploring subatomic particles 56 Defining elements 56 Comparing isotopes 57 Let’s Bond: How Atoms Are Attracted to Each Other 59 Feeling fulfilled by arranging your electrons just right 60 Holding on: Electronegativity 63 Give and take: Oxidation and reduction 64 Opposites attract: Ionic bonds 65 Sharing is caring: Covalent bonds 65 A molecule by any other picture 66 Don’t hog the toys! Polar covalent bonds 67 Molecular Velcro: Hydrogen bonds 67 Molecular cliques: Hydrophobic interactions 69 Blue Planet: The Ocean inside Your Cells 69 Splitting water 70 Measuring pH 70 Changing pH 71 Maintaining pH 71 Chain, Chain, Chain: Building and Breaking Polymers 72 Identifying the parts and the whole 72 Getting together and breaking up again 73 Dressing for success: Functional groups determine molecular properties 73 Chapter 5: Carbohydrates: How Sweet They Are 77 CH2O: Structure of Carbohydrates 77 Keeping it simple: Monosaccharides 78 Making it complex: Polysaccharides 82 Sticky and Sweet: Functions of Carbohydrates 84 Chapter 6: Proteins: Workers in the Cellular Factory 87 Get into Shape: Levels of Protein Structure 87 Get in line: Primary structure 89 The long and winding road: Secondary structure 91 3D: Tertiary structure 92 Sometimes one is not enough: Quarternary structure 94 Jacks of All Trades: The Many Functions of Proteins 95 Get ’Er Done: Enzymes Make Things Happen 95 Made for each other: Enzymes and substrates 96 Helping hands: Cofactors and Coenzymes 97 Listening to others: Inhibiting enzymes 97 Gatekeepers: Membrane Proteins 100 I’m in Charge: DNA-Binding Proteins 101 Chapter 7: DNA and RNA: Instructions for Life 103 It’s Puzzling: Structure of Nucleic Acids 103 Navigating nucleotides 104 Naming the nucleotide bases 105 Recognizing nucleotides 107 Making DNA and RNA 107 The double helix of DNA 109 Shaping up RNA molecules 110 Breaking the Code: The Function of DNA and RNA 110 Chapter 8: Lipids: Waterproof and Energy Rich 113 Hydrocarbons: Structure of Lipids 113 Saturating fatty acids 114 Forming fats and oils 115 Looking at other types of lipids 116 You Say Fat Like It’s a Bad Thing: Functions of Lipids 119 Part 3: The Working Cell 121 Chapter 9: Hello, Neighbor: How Cells Communicate 123 Shipping and Receiving: Transport across Membranes 123 Getting past the bouncer 124 Which way should I go? 124 Crossing the border 125 Going with the flow 126 It’s an uphill battle 127 Chatting through Cellular Connections 129 Shaking hands through cell-cell attachments 129 Sticking together through thick and thin 131 Jumping the cell-cell gap 131 Sending and Receiving Signals 132 Satellite dishes: Receptors 133 Relaying the message: Signal transduction 133 Amplifying the signal 135 Calming down: Deactivating the signal 137 Chapter 10: Metabolism: Transferring Energy and Matter 139 Revving Up Your Metabolism 139 Stayin’ Alive: Cellular Work and the Laws of Thermodynamics 141 The first law of thermodynamics 141 The second law of thermodynamics 143 Going to work in the cellular factory 147 One Step at a Time: Metabolic Pathways 151 Taking baby steps during chemical reactions 152 Helping hands from enzymes 153 Giving and taking electrons in redox reactions 155 Shuttling electrons with electron carriers 156 Getting what you need at the cellular level 158 Chapter 11: Cellular Respiration: Every Breath You Take 159 Cellular Respiration: An Overview 159 Controlling the burn 161 Transferring energy to ATP 162 Moving electrons to oxygen 162 Taking things one step at a time 163 Gimme a Break: Glycolysis 164 Everybody’s doing it 165 Fine print: The steps of glycolysis 165 Making ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation 167 Living by glycolysis alone: Fermentation 168 The Wheel of Fire: Krebs Cycle 170 Linking glycolysis and Krebs 171 Fine print: The steps of the Krebs cycle 173 More is better: Taking advantage of the Krebs cycle 174 Taking It to the Bank: Chemiosmosis and Oxidative Phosphorylation 174 Transferring electrons along an electron transport chain 175 Transferring energy from food to ATP 177 The steps of the chemiosmotic theory of oxidative phosphorylation 177 Doing the math: How many ATP can you make from the energy in a glucose molecule? 179 Breaking Down Complex Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats 180 Finding an on-ramp to the superhighway 180 Feeding complex carbohydrates into the system 181 Burning fat 181 Breaking down proteins 183 It’s a Two-Way Street: Connections between Metabolic Pathways 183 Reversing the flow of matter and energy 184 Packing on the fat 185 Building muscle 185 Cellular respiration in the real world 186 Chapter 12: Photosynthesis: Makin’ Food in the Kitchen of Life 187 Photosynthesis: An Overview 187 Getting what plants need 188 Examining the role of soil 190 Basking in the Sun 190 Capturing the Sun’s energy with pigments 191 Yin and yang: The light reactions and the Calvin cycle 192 Shine on Me: The Light Reactions 194 Transferring light energy to chemical energy 194 The steps of photophosphorylation 196 The Circle of Life: Calvin Cycle 198 The steps of the Calvin cycle 199 Got Food? Photosynthesis in the Real World 201 Chapter 13: Splitsville: The Cell Cycle, Cell Division, and Cancer 203 Reproducing the Cell 203 Drifting Apart: Binary Fission 204 Red Light, Green Light: The Cell Cycle 205 Pausing during Gap 1 206 The S phase and Gap 2 206 The Dance of the Chromosomes: Mitosis 207 Breaking Up Is Hard to Do: Cytokinesis 209 Keeping It under Control 211 Cancer: The Enemy Within 212 Defining cancer 212 Causes of cancer 215 Fighting back 217 Part 4: Genetics: From One Generation to the Next 219 Chapter 14: Meiosis: Getting Ready for Baby 221 Let’s Talk about Sex, Baby: Reproduction 221 Riding the life cycle 222 Counting chromosomes 223 Homologous Chromosomes 224 Going Separate Ways: Meiosis 225 Following the plan 226 An overview of meiosis 226 Shuffling the Genetic Deck: Crossing Over 229 Why Two Divisions Are Better than One 230 It Was All a Mistake: Nondisjunction 231 Chapter 15: Genetics: Talkin’ ’Bout the Generations 233 Pass the Peas, Please: Mendel and Segregation of Single Gene Traits 233 Living like a monk 234 Speaking the lingo 235 Round pea meets wrinkled pea 236 The odds are 3:1 237 Making a prediction 238 Testing an idea 240 Remembering meiosis 241 Playing by the rules 241 Tracing a trait: Pedigrees 243 I Can Go My Own Way: Independent Assortment 245 Round yellow pea meets wrinkled green pea 245 Puzzling over the Punnett 247 Remembering meiosis 248 It’s News to Mendel: Inheritance beyond Simple Dominance 249 Almost Inseparable: Linked Genes 253 Traveling together because of linkage 254 Slipping away through recombination 255 Building a map of a chromosome 255 Mama’s Boy: Sex-Linked Inheritance 257 Explaining the differences 257 Analyzing the pedigree 258 Part 5: Molecular Genetics: How Cells Read the Book of Life 261 Chapter 16: DNA Replication: Doubling Your Genetic Stuff 263 DNA Replication: An Overview 263 Everybody Lend a Hand: Enzymes Involved in DNA Replication 264 It Takes a Village: Events at the Replication Fork 265 Start at the very beginning: Origins of replication 265 Learning to unwind with helicase 266 Putting down some primer 266 Rolling down the line 268 Replacing some tiles 268 Tying up loose ends 268 Finishing the job 269 Keeping It Together: Leading and Lagging Strands 269 Chapter 17: Transcription and Translation: What’s in a Gene? 273 File It under Genes: The Blueprints for RNA and Proteins 273 Defining a gene 274 Going with the flow 274 Make a Copy, Please: Transcription 275 Locating the file 275 Hiring a worker 276 Marking the end 278 Finishing Touches: RNA Processing in Eukaryotes 278 Making a Protein: Translation 280 Reading the code 280 The decoder: tRNA 283 Master craftsman: The ribosome 284 The steps of translation 285 Don’t Drink and Drive: Mutation 288 Everybody makes mistakes 288 Dealing with the consequences 289 Chapter 18: Control of Gene Expression: It’s How You Play Your Cards That Counts</b> 291 Controlling the Situation: Gene Regulation and Information Flow 291 Becoming a specialist 292 Keeping house 293 I Can Be Flexible: Gene Expression in Bacteria 294 Organizing bacterial genes 295 Taking E coli to dinner 295 Looking at lac 296 Feeling repressed 296 Game on: Inducing the lac operon 297 Game over: Repressing the lac operon 298 Advancing to the next level: Catabolite repression of the lac operon 298 The Master Plan: Gene Expression in Eukaryotes 301 Seizing the opportunity 301 Unpacking the plan 302 Controlling transcription 304 Controlling events between transcription and translation 306 Controlling translation and beyond 307 Learning from Experience: Epigenetics 308 Part 6: Molecular Biology: Harnessing the Power of DNA 311 Chapter 19: The Book of You: Reading Your Genes 313 Copying a gene with PCR 313 Sorting molecules using gel electrophoresis 316 Reading a gene with DNA sequencing 318 I Read the Whole Thing: Sequencing Genomes 323 Unleashing the power of genomics 324 Reading the book of life with shotgun sequencing 324 Looking within the human genome 326 Beyond Genomics: Systems Biology and Epigenomes 327 Comparing gene expression with DNA microarrays 328 Mapping the epigenome 330 Chapter 20: Rewriting the Code of Life: Recombinant DNA Technology and Genome Editing </b> 331 Piecing It Together: Recombinant DNA Technology 332 Cutting DNA with restriction enzymes 332 Making cDNA with reverse transcriptase 333 Cloning genes into a library 334 Finding a gene with DNA probes 336 Changing the Plan: Using Recombinant DNA Technology to Solve Problems 337 Making useful proteins through genetic engineering 338 Searching for disease genes 339 Building a “better” plant with genetic engineering 341 Fixing a broken gene with gene therapy 342 Hitting the Bull’s-Eye with Genome Editing 344 Get off my lawn! CRISPR in nature 344 Changing the plan: CRISPR in the lab 346 Part 7: The Part of Tens 349 Chapter 21: Ten Important Rules for Cells to Live By 351 The Cell Theory 351 The First Law of Thermodynamics 352 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 353 The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection 354 The Law of Conservation of Matter 356 Nucleic Acids Pair in Antiparallel Strands 357 Central Dogma 358 Protein Shape Is Essential to Their Function 358 Law of Segregation 360 Law of Independent Assortment 360 Chapter 22: Ten Ways to Improve Your Grade 361 Monitor Your Learning 361 Study Smarter 362 Actively Participate in Class 363 Schedule Your Study Time 363 Give Your Brain a Well-Rounded Workout during Study Sessions 364 Get Creative with Memory Tricks 365 Recognize the Difference between Levels of Understanding 365 Remember the Supporting Material 366 Use Your First Test as a Diagnostic Tool 366 Get Help Sooner Rather than Later 367 Index 369

Details

Verfasser*in: Suche nach Verfasser*in Kratz, René Fester
Verfasser*innenangabe: by René Fester Kratz, PhD
Jahr: 2020
Verlag: Hoboken, NJ, Wiley, J /VCH
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Systematik: Suche nach dieser Systematik NN.BD, FS.E, NN.BC
Suche nach diesem Interessenskreis
ISBN: 978-1-119-62040-2
2. ISBN: 1-119-62040-6
Beschreibung: 2nd edition, xiii, 384 Seiten : Illustrationen
Schlagwörter: Cytologie, Molekularbiologie, Molekulare Biologie, Zellbiologie, Zelle / Biologie, Zellenlehre, Zellforschung, Zellkunde, Zelluologie, Zytologie
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Sprache: Englisch
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Mediengruppe: Buch